X-rays defined as:
1) X-rays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895. These rays were also called as Roentgen rays.
2) X-rays are electromagnetic waves of wavelength ranging 0.1 Å to 100 Å.
3) The frequency of X-rays is from 1016 Hz to 1019 Hz.
4) X-rays are produced when fast moving electrons are suddenly stopped on a metal of light atomic number.
5) The basic requirements for the production of X-rays are as follows:
a) A source of electron
b) an effective means for accelerating the electrons
c) a target of high atomic number material.
Properties of X-rays
1) X-rays are not deflected by electric and magnetic fields. It shows that X-rays are unchanged.
2) X-rays are electromagnetic waves which are emitted in the form of photons.
3) X-rays travel with a speed 3 × 108 m/s through vacuum.
4) X-rays obey the phenomena of interface, diffraction and polarization like light.
5) X-rays are ionize the gas through which they pass.
6) X-rays differ from cathode rays.
7) X-rays affect photographic plate.
8) X-rays produce fluorescence with certain materials.
9) X-rays can pass through flash and blood but not through bones.
10) X-rays produce photoelectric effect and Compton Effect.
11) X-rays are not emitted by hydrogen atom.
12) X-rays cannot be used in RADAR as they are not reflected by the target.
13) Lead is the best absorber of X-rays.
Use of X-rays
X-rays are used in study of crystal structure, in surgery, in medicine, in spying, in engineering, in industries, in radiography and in research.