States of matter

States of matter

States of matter – There are four state of matter.In this blog page we will understand all of then one by one. Let us start to understand solid, Liquid, gaseous, Plasma. Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids states of matter.

1) Solid states of matter

a) The solids have a define shape, size and volume.
b) The solids are rigid and they oppose the external force which tends to change their shape.
c) Sometimes, a solid shows a change in its shape under the effect of force applied but regain its original shape at once when the applied force is removed, provided the applied force is not to large.
d) A solid is denser as compared to liquid or gas.
e) Solid is in-compressible than that of liquid and gas.
f) The inter-molecular forces are strongest for solids as compared to liquids and gasses.
g) In a solid, the molecules can vibrate about their mean or equilibrium position but cannot move freely.
h) A solid remains in solid form if its temperature is below a certain temperature.
i) In a solid the kinetic energy of molecules is less than their potential energy.

2) Liquid states of matter

The liquid do not possess a definite shape but they do have definite volume. A liquid takes the shape of the vessel in which it is taken but in doing so, a liquid retains its volume. A liquid possesses fluidity. It begins to flow in the direction of the external force applied on it. A liquid is less dense as compared to a solid but denser as compared to gas. A liquid is more compressible then solid but less compressible than that of a gas. The inter-molecular forces are less strong than solids but stronger than gases. In a liquid, molecules can move freely within the liquid. A liquid can be found at a temperature more than that of a solid. In a liquid, the kinetic energy of a molecule is more than its potential energy.

3) Gaseous states of matter

A gas has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume of its own. Gas takes the shape of the vessel in which it is taken. A gas processes fluidity. It begins to flow in the direction of external force, applied on it. A gas is maximum compressible as compared to liquid or solid. The inter-molecular forces are weakest in gases than those of solids and liquids. In a gas, the molecules can move freely over the entire space of the vessel containing the gas. A gas can be found at a temperature height than that of a liquid and solid. In a gas, the kinetic energy of its molecule is very large as compared to its energy.

4) Plasma states of matter

It is a state of matter in which the medium is in the form of positive and negative ions.

Crystalline solids

These are those which have a definite external geometrical form and whose constituent atoms/ions/molecules are arranged in a definite pattern in three dimensions within the solid. Examples- Quartz, calcite, rock salt, sugar, mica, diamond etc. Crystalline solids have sharp melting point and they are anisotropic in behavior.

Amorphous solids

These are those which have a definite external geometrical form and whose constituent atoms/ions/molecules are not arranged in a definite pattern in three dimensions within the solid. Example- Robber, glass, plastic, cement etc. Crystalline solids do not have sharp melting point and they are isotropic in behavior.