At the outset, terminological clarification about usages of this phase namely, cyber crimes is warranted. Many a time, cyber crimes’ is used synchronously to indicated computer crimes also. However, technically speaking, the phase cyber crime entails a different and unique understanding. No doubt, computer, in whatever sense we use term is basically required to undertake any activity in the cyber context. In other words, possible crime can be perpetrated with the help of a computer devoid of cyber context. But as matters stand now, without the help of a computer network it is not possible to involve in any kind of activity in the cyber context.
The objective of this post is to define what constitutes Cyber Crime. You will be able to identify the offences that constitute Cyber Crime under the I.T. Act 2000.
In an influential research work, Prof. Ulrich Sieber observed that, “ the vulnerability of today’s information society in view of computer crimes is still not sufficiently realized: Businesses, administrations and society depends to a high degree on the efficiency and security of modern information technology. In the business community, For example, most of the monetary transactions are administered by computers in form of deposit money. Electric commerce depends on safe systems for money transaction in computer networks. A company’s entire production frequently depends on the functioning of its data computer networks. A company’s entire production frequently depends on the functioning of its data processing system. Many businesses store their most valuable company secrets electronically. Marine, air and space control systems, as well as medical supervision rely to a great extent on modern computer systems. Computers and the internet also play an increasing role in the education and leisure of minors. International computer and communication systems and their protection against computer crime is therefore of essential importance.
Current forms of computer crimes
In most countries, the discussion about computer misuse began in the 1960s with the endangerment of privacy, which was discussed under the headword of “ data protection” and was later integrated within the concept of “ computer crime”. Since the 1970s, scientific research concentrated on computer-specific economic crimes, especially computer manipulations, computer sabotage, computer espionage and software piracy. The rapid growth of the telecommunications sectors science the 1980s and especially the spread of the World Wide Web (WWW) since the 1990s brought along the dissemination of illegal and harmful contents, such as pornography, hate speech and other communication offences in international computer networks. At the same time, the use of computers and modern communication technology by perpetrators in new field of crime, e.g. in organized crime, made it obvious that there were almost no boundaries for computer-related crime and that form a phenomenological point of view, homogeneous computer crime no longer existed. Since the respective modi operandi no longer follow a communication path, but constantly adapt to new technologies.
There are four types of computer crimes happening today.
- Infringements of Privacy
- Economic offences
- Computer hacking
- Computer Espionage